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“WHERE THINGS SO SMALL CAN HAVE A MASSIVE IMPACT ON YOUR HEALTH.”
Herbsprout is a webblog and podcast dedicated to sharing the health benefits of herbs, food, innovations related to our gut microbiome. Herbsprout seeks to bridge the vast chasm dividing the mainstream medical community and alternative medicine.

Environment such as diet plays key role in one's microbiome

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Quoted in the Harvard Gazette March 23 2021, “Evidence in humans and many animals to this point suggests that, surprisingly, genetics plays a small role compared to environmental influences,” according to Rachel Carmody, an assistant professor in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology and principal investigator of the department’s Nutritional and Microbial Ecology Lab.

Her team studied a number of different animals that were domesticated and given "foods originally cultivated for human use, in processed forms that are relatively easily digestible," Carmody is quoted as saying in the Harvard Gazette article. The result is they found that the microbiomes of these different species, from dogs to pigs to rabbits, became commonly similar. Carmody’s lab previously studied how the gut biome squad of both mice and humans changed, and changed quickly, simply through diet changes. The end result suggests that genetics plays a limited role in gut microbiome make up.

https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2021/03/new-study-shows-that-diet-has-major-impact-on-gut-biomes/

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Your ability to resist pathogens largely depends on your gut microbiome

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Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota can build resistance to gut colonization by disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens). Conversely, prolonged and/or high levels of antibiotic use in people promotes expansion of Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that causes severe diarrhoea and inflammation of the colon.

Scientists again have found that when one becomes infected with a pathogen changes occur in the microbial community that enhances one's ability to combat the harmful bacteria. The strength of one's resistance varies from person to person, according to Apollo Stacey of the National Institute of Health laboratory of Host Immunity.

It has been known that antibiotic use in people promotes expansion of Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that causes severe diarrhoea and inflammation of the colon, leading to a high risk of disease and death. Likewise, Salmonella enterica and C. rodentium respond to microbiota in the gut to strength or weaken their virulence. Stacey's team found that a naturally produced chemical in the body called taurine nourishes and trains the microbiota to promote its resistance to subsequent infection.


https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-00642-7

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(20)

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Unknown microbes discovered on the International Space Station

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Unknown microbes discovered...
Researchers from the U.S. and India on the International Space Station discovered previously unknown microbes, according to a a March 16 2021 article in Science Alert.

They found four strains of bacteria living in different places in the ISS, including Methylorubrum rhodesianum and the previously unknown species which were named IF7SW-B2T, IIF1SW-B5, and IIF4SW-B5, according to Science Alert. This family of bacteria found in soil and freshwater are involved in nitrogen fixation, plant growth, and can help stop plant pathogens, says team lead University of Southern California geneticist Swati Bijlani.

https://www.sciencealert.com/four-bacterial-strains-discovered-on-the-iss-may-help-grow-better-space-plants/amp

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More on illness linked to microbiome gut and mouth

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Data driven approach help researchers study microbes

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Natalia Shulzhenko, an associate professor of biomedical sciences at the Oregon State University (OSU) and her associates have employed a data-driven, systems-biology approach called Transkingdom network analysis to study host-microbe interactions under a western diet, according to a January 05 2021 report by News 18 television station in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. They use operational taxonomic units, or OTUs to categorize bacteria based on gene sequence similarity, says the report.

The OSU team studied Lactobacillus Johnsonii, Lactobacillus Gasseri, Romboutsia Ilealis and Ruminococcus Gnavus, for example, and their impact on the western diet. The team compared multiple studies of both humans and mice and the abundance of these four bacteria on our body mass index (BMI). With this analysis, R. Ilealis to be present in more than 80 per cent of obese patients, according to the News 18 report.

https://www.news18.com/amp/news/buzz/beneficial-gut-bacteria-can-play-key-role-in-treating-diabetes-3247631.html

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Akkermansia, the gut protector

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According to a recent February 26 2021 article in Mind Body Green, akkermansia municiphila is the great gut protector, supplying our gut lining with a protective layer of mucus. A common gut ailment called leaky gut is connected to a deficiency of Akkermansia.

The weakening of our gut wall can enable undigested food particles and bacteria to "leak" into the bloodstream which causes inflammation, even worse, gastrointestinal diseases, according to Dr. Mark Hyman, founder and director of The UltraWellness Center, the Head of Strategy and Innovation of the Cleveland Clinic Center for Functional Medicine who is quoted in the article.

There are a number of foods that are high in anti-oxidant properties such as pomegranate, green tea, and cranberry. These phytochemicals contain large amounts of tannins, flavonols, anthocyanins which feed the akkermansia bacteria.

In the article, Dr. Hyman also mentions the importance of Akkermansia for certain drug cancer treatments which are only effective with the presence of this bacteria in the gut.

https://amp.mindbodygreen.com/articles/foods-a-longevity-supporting-gut-microbe-loves-from-an-md

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100,000 viruses in our gut, both good and bad

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According to a February 19 2021 article in Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News (Genengnews) researchers have built "the Gut Phage Database" (GPD), a collection of 142,000 nonredundant viral genomes (>10 kb) obtained by mining a dataset of 28,060 globally distributed human gut metagenomes and 2,898 reference genomes of cultured gut bacteria.” They identified common ancestors among the identified viruses.

Researchers at Wellcome Sanger Institute and EMBL’s European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) claim that more than half of these viruses have never been seen before.

Genengnews quoted Alexandre Almeida, PhD, postdoctoral fellow at EMBL-EBI and the Wellcome Sanger Institute saying this could lead to new treatments such as antimicrobials from bacteriophage origin.

https://www.genengnews.com/news/over-100000-viruses-identified-in-the-gut-microbiome/

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Evidence microbes connect Nature's health to human health; 経験的証拠では自然の健康を人間の健康に結びつけます

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source: istockphoto source: istockphoto
Microbes out in Nature, from cyanobacteria to diatoms, could affect human health, according to a January 16 2021 report in Phys.Org by Kevin Dillon, a doctoral student in the lab of co-author Professor Donna E. Fennell, chair of the Rutgers University-New Brunswick, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Environmental and Biological Sciences. They found these microbes travel in clouds distributing themselves throughout nature, including soil, rivers, and lakes (1).

It has been known that phytoplankton such as diatoms and various forms of algae thrive in nutrient-rich coastal waters, during oceanic spring blooms, and fresh water environments. The algae include blue-green (cyanobacteria), green, red and golden algae, and diatoms (another form of algae).

The power of microbes is their ability to recycle the primary elements of all living systems, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Plankton are responsible for much of the food we eat and the air we breathe (2). Dillon says their research can lead to unlocking specific genes associated with the production of toxins by these microorganisms and limiting their growth. What this means is our well being really does go full circle in the "circle of life", and the connection is more interdependent than we may have ever suspected.

In addition to our personal health, diatoms hold 20% of carbon emissions in check, playing a major role in climate change control and is a major source of food for mammals such as whales, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (3). Additional research by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology say these tiny plankton drive a process called the "biological pump", consuming carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and moving it to sediments in the deep ocean (4).

1. https://phys.org/news/2021-02-microbes-pose-health-ecosystem-earth.amp
2. https://oceanconservancy.org/blog/2019/08/09/plankton-small-organism-big-role/
3. https://aaas.confex.com/aaas/2010/webprogram/Paper1743.html
4. https://www.ntnu.edu/news/2013-news/ocean-certain


経験的証拠では自然の健康を人間の健康に結びつけます

2021年1月16日にPhys.Orgで報告されているように共著者、ラトガース大学環境科学、環境生物科学科の議長のDonna E.Fennell教授の研究室の博士課程の学生であるKevin Dillonによると、シアノバクテリアや珪藻など自然界に存在する微生物は、人間の健康に影響を与える可能性があります。 この微生物が雲の中を移動し、土壌、川、湖などの自然全体に分布していることを発見されました。

珪藻やさまざまな藻類などの植物プランクトンは、栄養豊富な沿岸水域で、海洋性の春咲きの時、或いは淡水環境で繁殖することが知られています。藻類には、青緑色(シアノバクテリア)、緑・赤・黄金色藻、珪藻(別の形態の藻)が含まれます。

微生物の力は、炭素、窒素、酸素など、すべての生命システムの主要な要素をリサイクルする能力です。プランクトンは私たちが食べる食品と呼吸する空気の多くに役割を果たす。アメリカ科学振興協会によると、珪藻は私たちの個人的な健康に加えて、炭素排出量の20%を抑制し、気候変動の制御に大きな役割を果たし、クジラなどの哺乳類の主要な食料源となっています。

ノルウェー科学技術大学の研究によると、この小さなプランクトンは「生物ポンプ」と呼ばれるプロセスを駆動し、大気から二酸化炭素を消費して深海の堆積物に移動させます。

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Four primary herbs of TCM; 伝統的な漢方薬の4つの主要なハーブ

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According to a January 2021 Well and Good article by writer Kayla Hui, there are four main herbs associated for centuries with traditional Chinese medicine or TCM.

1) First is ginseng, the "granddaddy of them all". Ginseng is an adaptogen, aka a substance that helps the body react to stress and keep it in balance.

2) Though popular in Chinese culture, Huang Qi dried roots of the plant astragalus is known to protect the immune system.

3) Also well known and popularly used in Chinese and Japanese culture, the lingzhi mushroom, or ganoderma lingzhi, also known as reishi, is a polypore fungus ("bracket fungus"), that may be familiar by its fanning out shape. It has therapeutic properties that can enhance energy and increase memory.

4) The goji berry which took the health community by storm in recent years, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce stress by limiting free radicals.

https://www.wellandgood.com/chinese-herbs-longevity/amp/


伝統的な漢方薬(Traditional Chinese Medicine)の4つの主要なハーブ

筆者KaylaHuiによって書かれた2021年1月のWelland Goodの記事によると、何世紀にもわたって伝統的な漢方薬(Traditional Chinese Medicine)に関連付けられてきた4つの主要なハーブがあります。

1. 一つ目は「すべての祖父」である高麗人参です。高麗人参は、体がストレスに反応してバランスを保つのを助ける物質であるアダプトゲンです。
2. 二つ目は、中国文化で人気があるにもかかわらず、西洋ではあまり知られていない黄気は、食品添加物として理想的に使用される植物の乾燥した根を持っています。免疫系を保護することが知られているレンゲが含まれています。
3. 三つ目、中国と日本の文化でよく知られており、広く使用されているLingzhiキノコ又は霊芝は多孔質のキノコ(「ブラケットキノコ」)です。このキノコは、エネルギーを高め、記憶を増やすことができる治療特性を持っています。
4. 4つ目、近年では健康界を驚かせるゴジベリーは、フリーラジカルを制限することでストレスを軽減するのに役立つ強力な抗酸化作用と抗炎症作用を持っています。

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Fecal transplant prove effective in melanoma patients; 糞便移植は黒色腫患者に効果的であることが証明されています

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Fecal transplan...
Diwakar Dacar, oncologist at the University of Pittsburgh and colleagues evaluated the transfer of fecal matter from melanoma patients who responded well to immunotherapy compared to those patients for whom immunotherapy failed.

First reported by the Science journal February 05 2021 the results showed an increase in "CD8+ T cell activation, and decreased frequency of interleukin-8–expressing myeloid cells" which are known to suppress the immune system.

This fecal transplant treatment helped reduce size of the tumors in their patients where other treatments weren't effective. This brings up the "unproven theory", possibility that fecal transplant through microbes can potentially reach places where other treatments cannot. Again, more research is needed to confirm this.

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/371/6529/595

https://theconversation.com/amp/fecal-microbe-transplants-help-cancer-patients-respond-to-immunotherapy-and-shrink-tumors-154340


糞便移植は黒色腫患者に効果的であることが証明されています

ピッツバーグ大学の腫瘍学者であるDiwakarDacarと彼の同僚は、免疫療法が失敗した患者と比較して免疫療法によく反応した黒色腫患者からの糞便の移動を評価した。

サイエンスジャーナルによって2021年2月5日に最初に報告された結果は、免疫系を抑制することが知られている「CD8 + T細胞の活性化の増加、およびインターロイキン-8を発現する骨髄細胞の頻度の減少」を示しました。

この糞便移植治療は、他の治療法は効果的ではなかった患者の腫瘍のサイズを縮小するのに役立ちました。これは「証明されていない理論」をもたらします。微生物を介した糞便移植は、他の治療法では到達できない場所に到達する可能性があります。またまた、これを確認するにはさらに調査が必要です。

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