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“WHERE THINGS SO SMALL CAN HAVE A MASSIVE IMPACT ON YOUR HEALTH.”
Herbsprout is a webblog and podcast dedicated to sharing the health benefits of herbs, food, innovations related to our gut microbiome. Herbsprout seeks to bridge the vast chasm dividing the mainstream medical community, alternative medicine, and Asian medicine, especially of China (TCM), India (Ayurveda), and Japan (eJim & Kampo).

Zebrafish show similar response to butyrate as humans

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Zebrafish show similar respon...
Butyrate and the role of certain gut bacteria in making butyrate continues to gain in reputation as an aid in calming inflammation. An October 20 2020 study by the Centenary Institute found that the inflammatory immune cells of zebrafish embryos are calmed by the addition of butyrate, reducing inflammatory markers on macrophages.

Butyrate is an important "short chain fatty acid" molecule that is produced when good bacteria ferment dietary fiber in the gut. According to the Medical Express report, "zebrafish neutriphils use the same receptor as humans to 'sense' butyrate and activate anti-inflammatory benefits."


https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-10-anti-inflammatory-benefits-gut-bacteria-fish.amp

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How chemicals in household products affect your gut microbiome; 家庭用品に含まれる化学物質が腸内細菌叢にどのように影響するか

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How chemicals i...
A November 12 2020 news release from Washington State University reported (in the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Eureka Alert!) that children with higher levels of common household chemicals known as phthalates and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in their blood had a reduction in the amount and diversity of gut bacteria, while increased levels were associated with a reduction in fungi populations. These substances are commonly present in household products such as detergents, plastics, soap, shampoo, and hair spray.

Generally, a high diversity of gut bacteria and fungi are known to support a healthy immune system.

The study of fecal matter of 69 toddlers and preschoolers was led by Courtney Gardner, assistant professor in the Washington State University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, as part of her postdoctoral research in collaboration with Duke University.

Interestingly, Gardner also found several types of bacteria that have been used to clean up toxic chemicals in the guts of these tested children.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-11/wsu-rfc111020.php

家庭用品に含まれる化学物質が腸内細菌叢にどのように影響するか

ワシントン州立大学が解放した2020年11月12日のニュース「アメリカ科学振興協会のエイレカアラートで!」では、フタル酸エステルとして知られる一般的な家庭用化学物質のレベルが高い子供たちが血中のパーフルオロアルキル物質およびポリフルオロアルキル物質(PFAS)の細菌量と多様性が減少しましたが、レベルの増加は真菌の個体数の減少と関連している事を記載されました。これらの物質は、洗剤、プラスチック、石鹸、シャンプー、ヘアスプレーなどの家庭用品に一般的に含まれています。

一般的に、腸内細菌と真菌の多様性は健康な免疫システムをサポートすることが知られています。

ワシントン州立大学の市民環境工学部の助教授であるコートニー・ガードナーが主導され、デューク大学と共同で彼女のポスドク研究の一環として、69人の幼児と未就学児の糞便の研究を行われました。

おもしろいことは、ガードナーがまた、テストされた子供たちの腸内の有毒化学物質を浄化するために使用されているいくつかのタイプの細菌を発見しました。

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Gut Dysbiosis an early cue to onset of brain diseases; 腸内毒素症は脳疾患の発症への初期の糸口

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Evidence continues to shows the gut microbiome is altered early in both Parkinson's, dementia and Multiple Sclerosis patients, according to a November 10 2020 article in the Conversation.

Parkinson’s disease gut dysbiosis, often as constipation or diarrhea, is common. Gut problems may be present several decades before typical symptoms appear, according to the article.

Research has shown gut microbes appear to play a key role in sending and receiving the signals to and from the brain, such as stress signals. One way microbes do this is they produce proteins that carry messages to the brain. Another way is through the vegus nerve which physically connects the brain to the gut.

While this communication for the most part is generally healthy and benign, unhealthy microbiome can transmit harmful pathogens and abnormal proteins to the brain when the gut microbiome is in a state of dysbiosis. Studies show this can lead to a number of brain diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and dementia.

The gut microbiome plays a critical role beyond being an indicator. Another study by the University of California San Francisco found that "immune cells produced in the gut play a protective role during multiple sclerosis (MS) flare-ups," according to a November 22 2020 article by the New Atlas. Scientists demonstrated how these immune cells "travel up to the brain and potentially help shift a disease flare-up into remission."

While more research is needed in this field, a change in diet, a diet rich in fiber, or consumption of probiotics can potentially prove to be an effective remedy for patients experiencing the onset of dysbiosis.

https://theconversation.com/amp/your-gut-microbiome-may-be-linked-to-dementia-parkinsons-disease-and-ms-144367

https://newatlas.com/health-wellbeing/immune-gut-brain-mechanism-multiple-sclerosis-ms-flare-up/

Other related stories:

http://www.global-engage.com/life-science/gut-brain-axis-insights-why-the-microbiota-holds-therapeutic-potential-for-neuro-developmental-disorders/

https://en.bloguru.com/healthtech/373012/need-more-proof-our-gut-bacteria

https://en.bloguru.com/healthtech/371304/gut-bacteria-strains-found-to-prevent

https://en.bloguru.com/healthtech/377424/evidence-of-lactate-producing-gut

https://www.statnews.com/2020/11/20/multiple-sclerosis-gut-microbiome-link/

腸内毒素症は脳疾患の発症への初期の糸口

2020年11月10日の記事の会話によると、パーキンソン病、認知症、及び多発性硬化症の両方の患者の腸内細菌叢が早期に変化している証拠が引き続き示されています。

パーキンソン病の腸内毒素症は、しばしば便秘や下痢としてよく見られます。記事によると、腸内の問題は、典型的な症状が現れる数十年前に存在する可能性があります。

研究によると、腸内微生物は、ストレス信号など、脳との間の信号の送受信に重要な役割を果たしているようです。微生物がこれを行う1つの方法は、脳にメッセージを運ぶタンパク質を生成することです。脳を腸に物理的に接続する迷走神経を通すことは別の方法です。

このコミュニケーションの大部分は一般的に健康で良性ですが、腸内細菌叢が腸内毒素症の状態になっている時に、不健康な微生物が有害な病原体や異常なタンパク質を脳に感染させる可能性があります。研究によると、これはパーキンソン病、アルツハイマー病、ハンチントン病、多発性硬化症(MS)、認知症など、多くの脳疾患につながる可能性があります。

この分野ではさらなる研究が必要ですが、食物繊維が豊富な食事療法に変更したり、プロバイオティクスを消費したりすることで、腸内毒素症の発症を経験している患者にとって効果的な治療法であることが潜在的に証明される可能性があります

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Antarctic is home to life giving nitrogen microbes

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An October 28 2020 article in The Scientist says researchers found nitrate fixing microbiome in the Antarctic. This select group of microbes are known as diazotrophs.

A key building block of life, they can pull N2 gas out the air or from water and convert it into ammonium, a process called nitrogen fixation, according to Deborah Bronk, a chemical oceanographer of the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences in Maine.

Nitrogen fixing was previously believed to only be possible in warmer climates. A separate but related study made similar findings reported just two days earlier in The Scientist by Naomi Harada, a geochemist at the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology and co-author Takuhei Shiozaki. They found cyanobacterium UCYN-A was the major diazotroph, previously believed to only be found in tropical regions, according to Shiozaki.

https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/nitrogen-fixing-microbes-found-in-antarctic-sea-68099/amp

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Possible link between food allergies and gut microbiome; 腸内細菌叢とアレルギーと可能な関連

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Possible link b...
A recent study reported September 14 2020 by the Genetic Literacy Project said immunologist Dr. Cathryn Nagler at the University of Chicago prevented severe allergic reactions in mice by giving them gut microbes from healthy, non-allergic human babies.

Dr. Nagler found that by feeding collagen to allergic mice using a tube that reached down into their stomachs, to their gut microbiome, resulted in the mice getting better. Something a mouse is normally allergic to turns into something harmless if introduced directly into the gut. This led Nagler to believe allergic reactions can be due to imbalances in the community of beneficial bacteria, or microbiome, that lives in our guts.

Further testing proved to be fruitful. When Nagler and her team introduced healthy gut microbiome from healthy non-allergenic mice, the allergic mice got better.

https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2020/09/14/do-you-have-food-allergies-manipulating-the-gut-microbiome-might-treat-them/

See related article on gut microbiome and allergies:
https://en.bloguru.com/healthtech/383293/study-gut-bacteria-to-reduce-allergies

JAPANESE VERSION: 内細菌叢とアレルギーと可能な関連

遺伝的識字プロジェクト(Genetic Literacy Project) によって2020年9月14日に報告された最近の研究によると、シカゴ大学の免疫学者Dr. Cathryn Naglerは、健康でアレルギーのない人間の赤ちゃんの腸内細菌叢を与えるとマウスの重度のアレルギー反応を予防する。

Dr. Cathryn Naglerは、胃や腸内細菌叢に届くチューブを使用してアレルギーマウスにコラーゲンを供給することにより、マウスが良くなることを発見しました。マウスの腸に直接導入された場合、通常はアレルギーになるものが無害なものに変わります。これにより、Naglerは、アレルギー反応は、腸内に生息する有益な細菌またはマイクロバイオームのコミュニティの不均衡が原因である可能性があると考えました。

それ以上のテストは実り多いことが証明されました。Naglerと彼女のチームが健康な非アレルギー性マウスの健康な腸内細菌叢を導入したら、アレルギー性マウスは良くなりました。

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Sugar diets are not healthy especially for IBD patients; 砂糖食は特に炎症性腸疾患IBDの患者にとっては健康的ではありません

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Sugar diets are...
On October 28 2020 Inverse reported the impact of sugar consumption in mice led by co-author, Hasan Zaki, a researcher at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. He and his team studied the effects of different types of sugars on gut microbiome by testing inflammatory responses on gut microbiota in mice.

They tested the impact of glucose, sucrose, and fructose on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The mice were fed high levels of these sugars for one to five weeks.

Mice that were given these high sugar diets suffered from aggressive colon inflammation with severe diarrhea and a rapid loss of nearly 20 percent of their body weight. The sugar was fed to a particular gut bacteria called Akkermansia muciniphila, known to degrade mucus in the gut lining.

Researchers also transferred the gut microbiota of sugar-fed mice into healthy mice. The result also exacerbated healthy mice, who received the gut microbiota transferred from the sugar fed mice.

JAPANESE:
2020年10月28日、共著者に指導でテキサス大学南西医療センターの研究者のHasan Zakiがマウスの砂糖消費の影響について報告しました。
彼が自分のチームと共に、マウスの腸内細菌叢に対する炎症反応をテストすることにより、腸内細菌叢に対するさまざまな種類の糖の影響を研究しました。

彼らは、クローン病や潰瘍性大腸炎などの炎症性腸疾患(IBD)に対するグルコース、ショ糖、果糖の影響をテストしました。マウスに糖を高レベルで1〜5週間与えました。

高糖食を与えられたマウスは、重度の下痢を伴う攻撃的な結腸の炎症と体重のほぼ20パーセントの急速な減少でした。砂糖は、粘液を腸のライニングに劣化することで知られているアッカーマンシア・ムシニフィラと呼ばれる特定の腸内細菌に給餌されました。

研究者はまた、砂糖を与えられたマウスの腸内細菌叢を健康なマウスに移しました。結果はまた、砂糖を与えられたマウスから移された腸内細菌叢を受け取った健康なマウスを悪化させました。


https://www.inverse.com/mind-body/how-does-sugar-influence-the-microbiome/amp

See the following articles on IBD for additional information:

https://en.bloguru.com/healthtech/382125/changing-dynamics-of-gut-microbiome-in

https://en.bloguru.com/healthtech/362224/diet-and-mindfulness-therapy-can-help
#gutmicrobiome #bacteria #healthinnovation #wellness #IBD #health #datascience #ai #healthtech #obesity #cardiovasculardisease

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Gut microbiome play major role in mate for honeybee

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Though related across colonies, bees possess colony-specific chemical signatures largely determined by the colony environment, according to an October 14 2020 Science Advances article. This is true, rather than solely relying on genetic variants shared by nestmates (1).

However, nestmate recognition cues in honey bees are defined, at least in part, by another piece of the puzzle. That is, bees share characteristics of the gut microbiome across individual colony members according to the report.

The new research shows that honey bees have shared gut microbial communities specific to their colonies that communicate with chemical cues. The research was led by Cassondra L. Vernier, postdoctoral associate at the University of Illinois, in cooperation with Yehuda Ben-Shahar, professor of biology in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis (2).

1. https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/42/eabd3431

2. https://scitechdaily.com/honey-bee-its-me-gut-bacteria-is-key-to-bee-id/

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Does Gut Health searches on Google help locate Covid 19 hotspots?

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Does Gut Health searches on ...
It is commonly experienced by Covid-19 patients to have gastrointestinal issues such as gut irritation or diarrhea.

A September 12 2020 Bloomberg report of Massachusetts General Hospital research found that the public searches on Google correlated strongly with Covid cases in New York, New Jersey, California, Massachusetts and Illinois -- three to four weeks before contracting the disease.

These searches were associated with Covid 19 symptoms related to the gastrointestinal issues, and can serve as an advanced indicator of hotspots before they happen.

https://www.bloomberg.com/amp/news/articles/2020-09-13/googling-for-gut-symptoms-predicts-covid-hot-spots-study-finds

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A bacteria is found to generate electricity

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A bacteria is found to generat...
Imagine if humans could breathe in air and breathe out electricity. That's not so far from the truth for some bacteria. It is commonly accepted among scientists that two bacteria, Shewanella and Geobacter conduct small amounts of electricity.

Bacteria have no mouth or lungs. The bacteria called Geobacter swallows organic waste and exhale electrons which generates a tiny electric current in the process, according to a September 19 2020 article by Live Science.

Nikhil Malvankar, an assistant professor at Yale University's Microbial Science Institute in Connecticut, told Live Science that Geobacter are 100,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, but by breathing through a snorkel they trasmit electrons hundreds to thousands of times the length of their body (1).

An August 20 2020 article by Science magazine says Dr. Lars Peter Nielsen of Aarhus University, Denmark, found bacteria that join cells end to end to build electrical cables able to carry current up to 5 centimeters through mud (2).

Theoretically, this suggests that it might be possible to manipulate bacteria to create enough microbe-generated energy for consumer use, as in a "microbe-battery". TBD.

1. https://www.livescience.com/amp/electron-breathing-geobacter-microbes.html

2. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/08/electric-mud-teems-new-mysterious-bacteria#:~:text=But%20the%20more%20researchers%20have,moving%20electrons%20over%20shorter%20distances.
#microbiome #guthealth #electric #digitalhealth #gutbacteria

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Ancient toilets hint of original human gut microbiome

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An October 06 2020 article by the Archaeological Institute of America had an interesting story about toilets from days long past? Microbiome found in the latrines of medieval period Jerusalem and Riga Latvia show similarity to modern hunter gatherer microbiomes and modern industrial microbiomes,” according to Susanna Sabin of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History quoted in the article. However they are slightly different possessing their own unique characteristics.

These findings may help us understand the originating microorganisms of the human gut before the widespread use of antibiotics and processed foods.

https://www.archaeology.org/news/9080-201006-medieval-human-microbiome

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